Vann Curriculum/Syllabus

8th Grade Science Curriculum/Syllabus

Unit/Time Frame

Standard(s)

Major Topics/Concepts

(Matter: Properties and Change)

EOG: 14-16%

 

Classification of Matter

2 items on EOG

 

7 Days

 

8.P.1.1

Structure of atom; Arrangement of atoms as molecules or crystals; Pure substances: elements vs. compounds; Molecules; Simplifying compounds; Mixtures: homogeneous vs. heterogeneous; Solutions; Separating mixtures (filtration, sifting, evaporation); Movement of atoms in solids, liquids, and gases; Relationship between density and phases of matter

Knowing that molecules are the smallest part of covalent compounds, having an understanding of isotopes and distinguishing covalent and ionic molecules are not essential.

(Matter: Properties and Change)

EOG: 14-16%

 

The Periodic Table

3 items on EOG

 

7 days

 

8.P.1.2

 

History of Mendeleev’s creation of the periodic table; Use periodic table to identify element info (symbol, atomic #, atomic mass, state at room temperature, # of valence electrons); Major groups of elements: highly reactive metals, less-reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals, less reactive nonmetals, and almost completely nonreactive gases; Periods vs. groups; Trends in physical properties and the chemical reactivity of elements; Metalloids; Symbols vs. formulas; Recognize symbols or formulas for common substances (water, carbon dioxide, sucrose, table salt, oxygen, bleach, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, baking soda, and vinegar).

It is not essential to construct atomic models

(Matter: Properties and Change)

EOG: 14-16%

 

Physical vs. Chemical Changes

2 items on EOG

 

7 Days

 

8.P.1.3

 

Physical properties: shape, boiling point, color, density, melting point, odor, and solubility vs. chemical properties: acidity, alkalinity, combustibility (burning), and reactivity (rusting); Identify unknown substances by comparing properties to known substances; States of matter: gas, liquid, and solid; Sublimation; Evidence of chemical change: gas production, precipitate formation, heat production, and color change; Use evidence to determine physical vs. chemical changes; Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes; Chemical reactions and equations; Reactants; Products; Factors impacting rate of reactions: concentration of reactants, temperature, surface area, and catalysts; Water as universal solvent; pH scale; Use litmus paper, pH paper, and phenolphthalein.

Writing chemical formulas with reactions is not essential.

(Matter: Properties and Change)

EOG: 14-16%

Chemical Reactions

3 items on EOG

6 Days

 

8.P.1.4

 

Conservation of matter; Conservation of mass; Chemical reactions result in recombining atoms to form new substances; Examples that support law of conservation of matter.

Balancing chemical equations is not essential , but recognizing balanced equations is important.

(Earth’s Systems, Structures & Processes)

EOG: 13-15%

 

Structure of the Hydrosphe3 items on EOG

 

10 Days

 

8.E.1.1

Water circulated via water cycle; Ocean as major factor in climate; Water distribution on Earth: 97% in ocean; 77% of freshwater frozen: ice caps, glaciers, and aquifers; River basins; Watersheds; Origin of salt in ocean: eroding land, volcanic emissions, seafloor reactions, and atmospheric deposition; Salinity decreases in coastal waters, polar seas, and near mouths of large rivers; Importance of groundwater and factors impacting rate of groundwater movement; Permeable vs. impermeable; Aquifers; Wells; Role of rivers and streams; NC river basins (Watersheds).
Properties of water:  chemistry??

 

 

 

 

 

(Earth’s Systems, Structures & Processes)

EOG: 13-15%

 

The Ocean

2 items on EOG

 

10 Days

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.E.1.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Role of the ocean; Importance of estuaries; Variations in abiotic factors such as temperature, pressure, and light create ocean zones; Marine ecosystems: shore, intertidal, open ocean, and deep ocean; Chemosynthesis and chemical energy: hydrothermal vents, submarine hot springs, and methane cold seeps; Upwelling; Behavior of gases in seawater; Value and sustainability of marine resources: water source, photosynthetic productivity, food source, oxygen source, medicines, minerals, and energy resources; Deep ocean technology and exploration lead to information: new life forms, resources, and geologic processes; Winds and ocean currents; Impact of tides, waves, and predation on distribution, diversity and availability of organisms; Interconnectedness of terrestrial and aquatic food webs.

 

(Earth’s Systems, Structures & Processes)

EOG: 13-15%

 

Protecting Our Waters

3 items on EOG

0-1 for 8.E.1.4

 

10 Days

 

8.E.1.3

8.E.1.4

 

Physical (temperature, turbidity, water flow and circulation) and chemical (dissolved oxygen and other gases, pH, nitrates, phosphates, salinity) variables influencing the health of water systems; Testing for the presence of contaminants such as bacteria, nitrates, arsenic, etc.; Role of bio-indicators and population diversity in indicating water quality; Water quality standards; Standards for drinking water vs. water for bathing and cleaning; Drinking water treatment methods; Safe water practices, monitoring, and stewardship; Point and non-point environmental stressors.

(Energy Conservation and Transfer)

 

Energy Conservation and Transfer

3 items for each standard on EOG

EOG: 10-12%

 

12 Days

 

8.P.2.1

8.P.2.2

 

Impact of different fuels on environment; Apparent loss of energy during transformations results in a transfer of energy to another system; Transformation of solar energy via photovoltaic cells, solar batteries, and reflectors; Confining solar energy in heated water via collectors and containers; Difficulty of capturing and efficiently storing solar energy; Renewable vs. nonrenewable energy resources (geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, nuclear); Importance and implications of conserving natural energy resources; Reduce, reuse, recycle; Limitations of conservation and expanded use of renewable resources.

 

(Ecosystems)

 

Ecosystems

EOG: 9-11%

 

15 Days

 

Number of items per objective on EOG

8.L.3.1 = 1

8.L.3.2 = 2-3

8.L.3.3 = 2-3

 

Need to figure out how to incorporate Microbiology into flow of energy of an Ecosystem. (How do we fit into the ecosystem?)

 

 

 

 

 

8.L.3.1

8.L.3.2

8.L.3.3

 

Abiotic factors’ impact on ecosystems: nonliving, environmental conditions (temperature, cloud cover, precipitation, terrain/habitat, chemicals, pH, minerals, light intensity); Biotic factors’ impact on ecosystems: living or related to life (plants, animals, fungi, protists, bacteria); Food provides energy; Hierarchy (species, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere); Importance of biodiversity; Competition for limited resources (food, space, water, air, and shelter); Population density; Limiting factors: density-dependent vs. density independent; Relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs; Populations of various species co-exist and cooperate within ecosystems or compete for limited resources; Conditions of a stable ecosystem; Predator-prey relationships; Competition; Habitat; Niche; Examples of symbiotic relationships: parasitism and mutualism; Sun supplies energy for life; Autotrophs: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis; Food chains; Energy flow through food webs; Pyramids (energy/number/biomass); Trophic levels; Heterotrophs; Energy loss; Herbivores; Carnivores; Omnivores; Recycling of matter: water, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen

It is not essential to calculate population growth patterns or population density.

 

 

(Structure and Functions of Living Organisms)

EOG: 19-23%

 

Microbiology and Disease

3 items for each standard on EOG

 

10 Days

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.L.1.1

8.L.1.2

 

 

Characteristics of bacteria, parasites, protozoa, viruses, and some fungi and algae; How microbes relate to the spread, treatment, and prevention of human disease; Role of antibiotics and vaccines; Antibiotic resistance; Hosts; Vectors: rats, ticks,

mosquitoes, and soil; Infectious/contagious disease; Outbreak; Epidemic vs. pandemic.

 

It is not essential to know specific diseases or disorders caused by microorganisms or examples of epidemics and pandemics.

 

(Structure and Functions of Living Organisms)

EOG: 19-23%

 

Biotechnology

6 items on EOG.

 

13 Days

 

 

8.L.2.1

 

Traditional biotechnology vs. new biotechnology; Genetic information and advances available as a result of biotechnology; Biotechnology careers in medicine, agriculture, genetics, and food science; Economic benefits to NC; Ethical issues; Implications: making large quantities of medicine (penicillin) and human insulin, combating crime with DNA testing and forensic testing, bioremediation of soil and water, improving quality of crops and livestock products; Genetic modification; Cloning.

 

(Earth History)

EOG: 11-13%

 

Age of Earth

3 items on EOG

 

8 Days

 

8.E.2.1

 

Evidence to infer the age of Earth: absolute vs. relative geologic dating; Law of superposition; Formation of mold, cast, petrified, preserved, carbonized, and trace fossils; Fossil record; Index fossils; Radioactive dating: C-14, uranium; Geologic time scale; Eras: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic; Vastness of time involved in geologic time.

It is not necessary to calculate radioactive decay.

 

(Earth History)

EOG: 11-13%

 

Evidence of Change

4 Items on EOG

 

10 Days

 

8.E.2.2

 

Evidence of Earth’s history from rocks, fossils, and ice cores to gain knowledge about ancient climate, geography, geologic events, and life forms; Rock cycle; Types of faults: dip slips and strike slips; Impact of faults on interpreting Earth’s history.

 

(Evolution and Genetics)

EOG: 11-13%

 

Evolution and Genetics

4 items for each standard on EOG

 

13 Days

 

 

8.L.4.1

8.L.4.2

 

Evolution of landforms: Plate Tectonics Theory; Impact of sea level changes over time; Goals of and the evidence used to create biological classification systems/taxonomy; Purpose of evolutionary trees; Theory of Evolution of living things leading to diversity of species over generations; Biological evolution in response to lithospheric plate movement and environmental changes; Charles Darwin; Role of natural selection in acquiring adaptations; Extinction of species; Genetic variation: DNA, phenotypic variation; Examples of morphological, biochemical, and behavioral adaptations of organisms to particular environments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Molecular Biology)

EOG: 8-10%

 

Molecular Biology

 

2 items for each standard on EOG

 

10 Days

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.L.5.1

8.L.5.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Role of photosynthesis; Oxidation of food via cellular respiration for energy and release of some energy as thermal energy; ATP; Basal metabolic rate, BMR; Calories; Metabolism; Healthy lifestyle = healthy diet and physical activity; Interaction of digestive, circulatory, and respiratory systems in nutrition; Energy in = energy out; Adolescent energy needs

 

It is not essential to know the structural components of prot eins, lipids, and carbohydrates; to calculate calories or BMI; to know the USDA food pyramid/plate.